Until the time when Noah left the ark, all responsibility for punishment of wrongdoing was held by God. In the dispensation of human government, man is given authority to exercise laws and carry out judgment. The most important authority that God gives man is in Genesis 9:6 when he instructs that capital punishment be carried out for anyone who sheds another person’s blood. This upholds the sanctity of life because man is created in God’s image.
As part of the Noahic Covenant, in addition to giving authority to carry out capital punishment, God makes several promises. Man does not need to fear another universal flood. The fear of man is placed into animals and natural order is established. Man is also given permission to eat meat with the prohibition that it not contain any blood still in it.
Human government fails to uphold morality and God’s laws. We see this early on in the building of the Tower of Babel, throughout the nation of Israel, and today in our modern governments. The next dispensation is not brought about because of these failures, however. God will call Abraham and choose to bless him.